|Named for||Abraham Baldwin|
|• Total||267 sq mi (690 km2)|
|• Land||258 sq mi (670 km2)|
|• Water||9.6 sq mi (25 km2) 3.6%|
|• Density||170/sq mi (70/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
Baldwin County is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2020 census, its population was 43,799. The county seat is Milledgeville, which was developed along the Oconee River.
Baldwin County is part of the Milledgeville micropolitan statistical area.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2013)
The land west of the Oconee River was organized as Baldwin and Wilkinson Counties. The Treaty of Washington with the Creek in 1805 extended the state's western boundary to the Ocmulgee River. A legislative act on June 26, 1806, added some of this additional land to both counties.
The state legislature subsequently passed an act on December 10, 1807, that created four new counties from Baldwin County's 1806 borders. It expanded Baldwin to the east with land from Hancock and Washington Counties. The new counties were Morgan, Jones, Putnam, and present-day Jasper (originally named Randolph County at the time of the act).
The county is named for Abraham Baldwin, a signer of the United States Constitution, U.S. congressman representing Georgia, and the founder of the University of Georgia. White settlers moved into the area and developed large cotton plantations, made possible by the labor of slaves. Since the invention of the cotton gin, short-staple cotton could be profitably processed, and it was well-suited to the uplands of Georgia. What became known as the Black Belt of Georgia, an arc of fertile soil, was one of the destinations for slaves being sold from the Upper South, as well as from the Low Country.
Because of its central location within the state and its abundant supply of water from the Oconee River, Milledgeville grew rapidly into a bustling frontier town. On November 2, 1807, the state legislature held its first session in the newly completed statehouse in Milledgeville. Georgia's first state penitentiary was also built within the historic city limits of Milledgeville in 1817. This site is now used as the main campus of Georgia College and State University. In 1837, the General Assembly provided for the establishment of the state's first mental asylum, today known as Central State Hospital.
When the state of Georgia seceded from the Union in January 1861, during a legislative session held in Milledgeville, Baldwin County became a target for Union forces. When Union general William T. Sherman made his devastating March to the Sea through Georgia, his troops occupied the capital city in November 1864. Sherman and his Union armies burned the state penitentiary, vandalized the city, and held a mock session of the legislature in the statehouse to repeal the state's ordinance of secession.
In 1868, after the Civil War (1861–65), Georgia's capital was moved from Milledgeville to its present location in Atlanta. Today, Milledgeville is home to two institutions of higher education: Georgia College and State University and Georgia Military College. Founded in 1889 as the Georgia Normal and Industrial College for Women, Georgia College and State University has since grown to become the state's premier public liberal-arts university. Georgia Military College, founded in 1879, now occupies the Old Capitol Building.
In addition to the Old Capitol and Governor's Mansion, visitors to Baldwin County can explore Andalusia, the family farm of writer Flannery O'Connor; Milledgeville's historic district; and the Lockerly Arboretum, a botanical garden and nature education center that hosts the Lockerly Heritage Festival each September.
- Carl Vinson, who served for 50 years in the U.S. Congress, was born in Baldwin County.
- Oliver Hardy, comedian and film director, began his career in the Milledgeville Opera House.
- Flannery O'Connor, novelist and short-story writer, lived in Milledgeville. She is buried in her family plot in the city's historic Memory Hill Cemetery.
The county is located along the fall line of the Eastern United States. The city of Milledgeville, which is located along the Oconee River, is an important city in the region. Because of its location, the northern part of the county tends to be more hilly due to its location in the Piedmont than the southern part of the county, which is in the far northern part of the Atlantic coastal plain.
Most of Baldwin County, south of Lake Sinclair, is located in the Lower Oconee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. The northern portion of the county is located in the Upper Oconee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin.
- Putnam County, Georgia - north
- Hancock County, Georgia - northeast
- Washington County, Georgia - east
- Wilkinson County, Georgia - south
- Jones County, Georgia - west
Hiking and cycling
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2010, 46,337 people, 14,758 households, and 9,843 families were living in the county. The population density was 173/sq mi (67/km2). The 17,173 housing units had an average density of 66 per square mile (25/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 54.17% White, 43.38% African American, 0.21% Native American, 1.01% Asian, 0.49% from other races, and 0.74% from two or more races. About 1.36% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race.
Of the 14,758 households, 31.0% had children under 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 18.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.3% were nont families. About 25.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 7.8% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.50, and the average family size was 3.02.
In the county, the age distribution was 21.7% under 18, 14.5% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 10.60 who were 65 or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 117.30 males. For every 100 females 18 and over, there were 119.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $35,159, and for a family was $42,736. Males had a median income of $31,227 versus $22,718 for females. The per capita income for the county was $16,271. About 11.80% of families and 16.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.80% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2010 United States Census, 45,720 people, 16,788 households, and 10,373 families resided in the county. The population density was 177.3 inhabitants per square mile (68.5/km2). There were 20,159 housing units at an average density of 78.2 per square mile (30.2/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 54.9% White, 41.5% African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.8% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 41.5% were African, 24.0% were American, 7.9% were English, and 6.8% were Irish.
Of the 16,788 households, 30.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 19.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.2% were not families, and 26.9% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.45, and the average family size was 2.97. The median age was 34.1 years.
The median income for a household in the county was $37,237 and for a family was $47,714. Males had a median income of $36,158 versus $26,576 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,488. About 16.8% of families and 25.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.6% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.
|Black or African American (non-Hispanic)||18,318||41.82%|
|Hispanic or Latino||1,139||2.6%|
As of the 2020 United States census, 43,799 people, 16,191 households, and 9,568 families were residing in the county.
Members of the Baldwin County Board of Commissioners are responsible for administering the government to residents. Five members are on the board, elected from single-member districts. They serve four-year terms, and are up for election in a staggered fashion. The members of the board elect the chair from among themselves.
|Board of commissioners|
|District 1||Emily Davis||Democratic|
|District 2||Kendrick Butts||Democratic|
|District 3||Sammy Hall||Republican|
|District 4||Henry Craig||Republican|
|District 5||John Westmoreland||Republican|
Baldwin County has been a Democratic-leaning swing county in recent presidential elections, with no candidate receiving more than 52.9% of the vote in any presidential election from 1992 onward. The county was the only one in Georgia that failed to give a majority to either major-party candidate in the 2018 gubernatorial election, with Democrat Stacey Abrams winning the county by only 58 votes over Republican Brian Kemp. Baldwin County, along with neighboring Washington County, was one of 2 counties that gave a plurality of votes to Herschel Walker in the first round of the 2022 Senate election but then gave a majority of votes to Raphael Warnock in the subsequent run-off.
- Milledgeville (county seat)
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Baldwin County, Georgia
- List of counties in Georgia
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